Tuesday, 9 May 2017

História da ciência em Portugal (Portuguese) (History of science in Portugal)

By Carlos Fiolhais:
Wook.pt. (n.d.). História da Ciência em Portugal, Carlos Fiolhais - Livro - WOOK. [online] Available at: https://www.wook.pt/livro/historia-da-ciencia-em-portugal-carlos-fiolhais/15334948 [Accessed 9 May 2017].

I liked Lourenço Pereira Coutinho's book more than this, both from the same collection of El Corte Inglés, because the former is more organized.
Some interesting quotes:
  • In 1823, Eduardo, abbé José Correia da Serra's son, «described the city of Lisbon that he found: it is a "den of ignorance and superstition fed by a multitude of monks, priests, and friars, whose interest is to keep the lower class in this condition"».
  • The mathematician Francisco Gomes Teixeira (1851-1933) «argued that the Portuguese should publish their scientific work in languages other than Portuguese, in order to allow greater internationalization.»
  • «(...), in 1860, 16 years before the Bell patent, a Luso-German built the first telephone that worked, without registering it. His name was Johann Philipp Reis and his device became known by "Reis' telephone". Reis was the grandson of Sephardic Jews from Beira Baixa who emigrated to Germany in the 18th century. Orphaned as a child, he was raised by a rather deaf Portuguese grandmother. And the phone came from the idea of an artificial ear for the grandmother. (...)! Reis was defeated by his self-dictatorship (his articles in scientific journals were refused), by anti-Semitism and, finally and worse, at age 40, by tuberculosis, the disease of the time, that had killed so many geniuses.»
Johann Philipp Reis (1834-1874)
Source: En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Johann Philipp Reis. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Philipp_Reis [Accessed 29 Jul. 2017].

Reis' telephone

Source: En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Johann Philipp Reis. [online] Available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Philipp_Reis [Accessed 29 Jul. 2017].

  • In 1878, Adriano Paiva «proposed a primitive television system, although he never did it in practice.»
  • «Admiral Carlos Gago Coutinho, who became known for the first aerial crossing of the South Atlantic, performed with Sacadura Cabral (...) in 1922, pioneered TSF in Portugal, having patented a signal detector in 1900.»
  • «The hydro-mineral wealth of Portugal has been known since the time of the Romans.»

Geomineral occurrences.
SourceDev.igeo.pt. (n.d.). Atlas de Portugal. [online] Available at: http://dev.igeo.pt/atlas/Cap3/Cap3b_8.html [Accessed 4 Aug. 2017].

The waters.
Source: Bardini, G. (n.d.). As Águas: Os Recursos Hidrominerais. [online] Slideplayer.com.br. Available at: http://slideplayer.com.br/slide/10296475/ [Accessed 4 Aug. 2017].

  • «(...) recognition "that Portugal was perhaps the country of Europe where, in proportion to its territory, there was more mineral water".»
  • «The Royal Schools of Surgery of Lisbon and Porto were created in 1825, associated with the Hospital de S. José [Hospital of Saint Joseph] and the Hospital da Misericórdia [Hospital of Mercy] (today, Hospital de Santo António [Saint Anthony Hospital]), respectively, with a more practical purpose than the Faculty of Medicine of Coimbra.»

Hospital de S. José, Lisbon.
Source: Wikiwand. (n.d.). Hospital de São José | Wikiwand. [online] Available at: http://www.wikiwand.com/pt/Hospital_de_S%C3%A3o_Jos%C3%A9 [Accessed 4 Aug. 2017].

Hospital de Santo António, Porto.
Source: Aresta, M. (n.d.). Turismo do Porto - Portal Oficial - Visitar - Hospital de Santo António (Centro Hospitalar do Porto). [online] Visitporto.travel. Available at: http://www.visitporto.travel/visitar/paginas/viagem/DetalhesPOI.aspx?POI=1830 [Accessed 4 Aug. 2017].

Faculty of Medicine of Coimbra.
Source: Neves, V. (2008). Panoramio - Photo of Universidade de Coimbra - Faculdade de Medicina. [online] Panoramio.com. Available at: http://www.panoramio.com/photo/16651764 [Accessed 4 Aug. 2017].

  • «(...) emerged, as early as 1836, the Medical-Surgical Schools of Lisbon and Porto, that would give rise to the Faculties of Medicine of Lisbon and Porto.»

Faculty of Medicine of Lisbon.
Source: Medicina.ulisboa.pt. (2017). Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa | História. [online] Available at: http://www.medicina.ulisboa.pt/sobre-a-fmul/historia-missao-visao/ [Accessed 4 Aug. 2017].

Faculty of Medicine of Porto.
Source: Sigarra.up.pt. (2017). FMUP - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto. [online] Available at: https://sigarra.up.pt/fmup/pt/web_page.inicial [Accessed 4 Aug. 2017].