Tuesday, 9 May 2017

História da ciência em Portugal (Portuguese) (history of science in Portugal)

By Carlos Fiolhais:
Wook.pt. (n.d.). História da Ciência em Portugal, Carlos Fiolhais - Livro - WOOK. [online] Available at: https://www.wook.pt/livro/historia-da-ciencia-em-portugal-carlos-fiolhais/15334948 [Accessed 9 May 2017].

I liked Lourenço Pereira Coutinho's book more than this, both from the same collection of El Corte Inglés, because the former is more organized.
Some interesting quotes:
  • In 1823, Eduardo, abbé José Correia da Serra's son, «described the city of Lisbon that he found: it is a "den of ignorance and superstition fed by a multitude of monks, priests, and friars, whose interest is to keep the lower class in this condition"».
  • The mathematician Francisco Gomes Teixeira (1851-1933) «argued that the Portuguese should publish their scientific work in languages other than Portuguese, in order to allow greater internationalization.»
  • «(...), in 1860, 16 years before the Bell patent, a Luso-German built the first telephone that worked, without registering it. His name was Johann Philipp Reis and his device became known by "Reis' telephone". Reis was the grandson of Sephardic Jews from Beira Baixa who emigrated to Germany in the 18th century. Orphaned as a child, he was raised by a rather deaf Portuguese grandmother. And the phone came from the idea of an artificial ear for the grandmother. (...)! Reis was defeated by his self-dictatorship (his articles in scientific journals were refused), by anti-Semitism and, finally and worse, at age 40, by tuberculosis, the disease of the time, that had killed so many geniuses.»
Johann Philipp Reis (1834-1874)
Source: En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Johann Philipp Reis. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Philipp_Reis [Accessed 29 Jul. 2017].


Reis' telephone

Source: En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Johann Philipp Reis. [online] Available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Philipp_Reis [Accessed 29 Jul. 2017].
  • In 1878, Adriano Paiva «proposed a primitive television system, although he never did it in practice.»
  • «Admiral Carlos Gago Coutinho, who became known for the first aerial crossing of the South Atlantic, performed with Sacadura Cabral (...) in 1922, pioneered TSF in Portugal, having patented a signal detector in 1900.»
  • «The hydro-mineral wealth of Portugal has been known since the time of the Romans.»
Geomineral occurrences.
SourceDev.igeo.pt. (n.d.). Atlas de Portugal. [online] Available at: http://dev.igeo.pt/atlas/Cap3/Cap3b_8.html [Accessed 4 Aug. 2017].

The waters.
Source: Bardini, G. (n.d.). As Águas: Os Recursos Hidrominerais. [online] Slideplayer.com.br. Available at: http://slideplayer.com.br/slide/10296475/ [Accessed 4 Aug. 2017].
  • «(...) recognition "that Portugal was perhaps the country of Europe where, in proportion to its territory, there was more mineral water".»
  • «The Royal Schools of Surgery of Lisbon and Porto were created in 1825, associated with the Hospital de S. José [Hospital of Saint Joseph] and the Hospital da Misericórdia [Hospital of Mercy] (today, Hospital de Santo António [Saint Anthony Hospital]), respectively, with a more practical purpose than the Faculty of Medicine of Coimbra.»
Hospital de S. José, Lisbon.
Source: Wikiwand. (n.d.). Hospital de São José | Wikiwand. [online] Available at: http://www.wikiwand.com/pt/Hospital_de_S%C3%A3o_Jos%C3%A9 [Accessed 4 Aug. 2017].

Hospital de Santo António, Porto.
Source: Aresta, M. (n.d.). Turismo do Porto - Portal Oficial - Visitar - Hospital de Santo António (Centro Hospitalar do Porto). [online] Visitporto.travel. Available at: http://www.visitporto.travel/visitar/paginas/viagem/DetalhesPOI.aspx?POI=1830 [Accessed 4 Aug. 2017].

Faculty of Medicine of Coimbra.
Source: Neves, V. (2008). Panoramio - Photo of Universidade de Coimbra - Faculdade de Medicina. [online] Panoramio.com. Available at: http://www.panoramio.com/photo/16651764 [Accessed 4 Aug. 2017].
  • «(...) emerged, as early as 1836, the Medical-Surgical Schools of Lisbon and Porto, that would give rise to the Faculties of Medicine of Lisbon and Porto.»

Faculty of Medicine of Lisbon.
Source: Medicina.ulisboa.pt. (2017). Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa | História. [online] Available at: http://www.medicina.ulisboa.pt/sobre-a-fmul/historia-missao-visao/ [Accessed 4 Aug. 2017].

Faculty of Medicine of Porto.
Source: Sigarra.up.pt. (2017). FMUP - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto. [online] Available at: https://sigarra.up.pt/fmup/pt/web_page.inicial [Accessed 4 Aug. 2017].
  • «(...) pneumonic plague, the terrible Spanish flu, that decimated many people in 1918, at the end of World War I.»
  • «(...) studies in the Faculties of Mathematics and Philosophy had to precede the studies of Medicine.»
  • Júlio Dinis (a writer) was the pseudonym of a professor at the Medical-Surgical School of Porto. He died of the disease that people called phthisis (tuberculosis).
  • «(...) sea air was good for the disease [tuberculosis] (...) there were those who went to the island of Madeira - many famous names, like Empress Elizabeth of Austria, better known by Sissi, (...).»


Empress Elizabeth "Sissi" of Austria on Madeira.
Source: DeLancey R. Empress Elizabeth "Sissi" of Austria. Pinterest. Available at: https://www.pinterest.pt/pin/20407004533311047/. Accessed September 2, 2017.

Romy Schneider as Sissi (3, 1957) with Magda Schneider on Madeira.
Source: Margarete M. Sissi. Pinterest. Available at: https://www.pinterest.pt/pin/297237644142164896/. Accessed September 2, 2017.
  • «In Portugal for many, many years, only the biology of classification was practiced, since there were numerous samples available from the country and from the colonies.»
  • «Guilherme Dias Pegado, professor of physics at the Polytechnic School, requested the Government to create a Meteorological Observatory in this school./(...). From 1865, the Lisbon Meteorological Observatory published a bulletin containing the probable weather in Lisbon for the following day.»
Polytechnic School, Lisbon
Source: Vieira J, Santos N. Disciplina - História das Ciências e das Tecnícas. Available at: http://libbmartins.wixsite.com/cienciasetecnicas/sculo-xix---o-sculo-das-cincias-. Accessed September 4, 2017.
  • «Both in the political movement that led to the Republic and in the governments of the First Republic there is a large number of doctors.»
  • «(...), in 1911, the Technical Superior Institute was founded, on the initiative of Alfredo Bensaúde, and, right at the start, it housed some foreign teachers, (...).»
  • «(...) in the period from 1900 to 1944, (...). The author with more works was Abel Salazar, with eight articles. The most cited author was Egas Moniz with 78 citations to his 1937 article that earned him the Nobel Prize.»
Egas Moniz, at the presentation of the results of angiography, at the Santa Marta Hospital, Lisbon.
Source: 12 de Novembro de 1935. A história esquecida das lobotomias de Egas Moniz. ionline. 2015. Available at: https://ionline.sapo.pt/artigo/479975/12-de-novembro-de-1935-a-historia-esquecida-das-lobotomias-de-egas-moniz-. Accessed September 6, 2017.
  • «Abel Salazar was an outstanding physician at the University of Porto. (...)./(...) it was he who said: "The doctor who only knows Medicine not even Medicine knows."»

Abel Salazar (1886-1949)
Source: Homenagem a Abel Salazar. Arquivosrtppt. Available at: https://arquivos.rtp.pt/conteudos/homenagem-a-abel-salazar/#sthash.kS2PyzrU.dpbs. Accessed September 9, 2017.
  • Mário Silva, «together with Álvaro de Matos, professor of medicine, created in 1931 the Radium Institute of Coimbra. Although it was almost ready and Madame Curie accepted to come to the opening, what should have been the first Portuguese Institute of Nuclear Physics, as well as the first Institute of Medical Oncology, it never even opened. The scientific activity of Professor Mário Silva was interrupted with his expulsion from teaching.»
  • «(...), despite his obvious merit, the young mathematician [António Aniceto Monteiro] didn't find a job in a high school. (...). All this because the wise man did not want to sign a role of fidelity to the Estado Novo, (...)./(...) "I don't accept limitations to my intelligence!", he said.
  • «António Egas Moniz (1874-1955) (...). He was born António Caetano de Abreu Freire de Resende, and he was renamed Egas Moniz because the Resende family descended directly from Egas Moniz, the tutor of D. Afonso Enriques.»/«(...) our only Nobel Prize in science: received the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology in 1949 for his work on the prefrontal lobotomy, together with the Swiss Walter Rudolf Hess (...).» In Coimbra, «(...) he took his doctorate, with a thesis entitled "The Sexual Life - Physiology", (...)» in 1910. «(...) he moved the following year to the University of Lisbon when there opened the Faculty of Medicine.» Lobotomy is no longer practiced in the 60s and some families of patients requested that the award of the Nobel Prize were annulled.
  • During the Estado Novo, «(...) construction of some hospitals, such as that of Santa Maria in Lisbon in 1953 and that of St John in Porto in 1959. (...).»
  • «The official beginning of the nuclear in Portugal dates back to 1954 with the creation of the Nuclear Energy Board. The Laboratory of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (predecessor of the current Technological and Nuclear Institute) began to be built in Sacavém in 1957, (...).»
  • «(...), the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, established in 1956, installed in 1961 the Gulbenkian Institute of Science, which was dedicated mainly to the area of Biology.»


Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation
Source: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. Ptwikipediaorg. Available at: https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funda%C3%A7%C3%A3o_Calouste_Gulbenkian. Accessed September 23, 2017.

Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation
Source: Alves J. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian - Portugal para Miúdos. Portugal para Miúdos. Available at: https://www.portugalparamiudos.pt/fundacao-calouste-gulbenkian/. Accessed September 23, 2017.

  • «(...) entry of Portugal in the European Union in 1986 (...).»
  • «Investment in science increased until it reached 1.5% of gross domestic product in 2010, reflecting the increase of (...) researchers and their activity. One measure of this growth is the huge increase in the number of PhDs done in or out of the country (increasingly in the country), (...). It also increased the number of scientific publications accordingly.»
  • «1290 - Foundation of the Portuguese University, (...).»
  • «1484 - Queen Dona Leonor founds the Hospital of Caldas da Rainha.»

D. Carlos I Park, Caldas da Rainha

Source: Cruz C. File:Pq d carlos i pavilhoes 1.JPG - Wikimedia Commons. Commonswikimediaorg. 2010. Available at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pq_d_carlos_i_pavilhoes_1.JPG. Accessed October 8, 2017.
  • «1536 - The Inquisition is established in Portugal. (...).»
  • «Pedro Hispano (c. 1215-1277) (...) was the first and so far the only Portuguese Pope, although there were before Popes who were born in the region where today is Portugal.»
  • «Garcia de Orta (c. 1500-1568): (...) "Colóquios dos Simples" ("Colloquia of Simple"), a world reference work on plants in India and its medicinal virtues.»
  • «António Nunes Ribeiro Sanches (1699-1783). (...). Empress Catherine the Great gave her a coat of arms with the motto "believed to have been born to be useful not to himself but to the whole world". (...).»
  • «Ricardo Jorge (1858-1939) (...). He introduced concepts and techniques of Public Health in Portugal. (...).»
  • «Augusto Celestino da Costa (1884-1956) (...). He is considered the father of embryology in the Iberian Peninsula. (...).»
  • «António Gião (1906-1969) (...). It was the first Portuguese to publish in "Nature". (...).»
  • «Mário Corino de Andrade (1906-2005) (...). (...) disease of the feet, Andrade or Corino-Andrade disease.»